Uman NUH | today: 09/10/2019

Changing the structure of the soil during the cultivation of legumes perennial grasses

Author(s) Kravchenko V. S. , Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2018 issue Випуск №92. Частина 1
pages 206-214 index UDK 631.43:633.31/.37
DOI
Abstract Intensive treatment of soils leads to their spraying, over-drying, swimming and strengthening of erosion processes. This not only worsens the agroecological properties of soils, but also significantly increases the costs of growing products and reduces the yield of agricultural plants. The main role in the structure formation belongs to vegetation and to organisms that inhabit the soil. However, the influence of perennial grasses, especially beans, on the restoration of soil structure remains insufficiently studied. Proceeding from this, a need arises for clarification and a deeper study of this issue. Leguminous perennial herbs were sown in a smooth manner in the early spring. Cultivated such types of grasses: alfalfa sowing, meadow clover, sandy sainfoin, white sweet clover, horned lagoon, goat's eastern. Structural analysis of soil was carried out by the method of determining the aggregate state of the soil by the method of N. I. Savinova at the end of vegetation of herbs first, second and fourth years. One-year-old growing of leguminous perennial grasses increases the proportion of agronomically valuable aggregates of the soil in comparison with the period before sowing of grass by 6.3–13.5 % and soil texture coefficient by 1.5–2.7 times. The most positive effect on improving the physical properties of the soil for one year of vegetation is carried out by the meadow clover grass. In the second year of vegetation, the proportion of large soil fractions grows, the proportion of agronomically valuable soil aggregates decreases, but the meadow clover exercises a positive effect on the physical properties of the soil. The four-year-old growing of herbs significantly improves the structure of the soil, especially the goatskin of the eastern and the horned hare. After plowing a two-year herbage of legumes, the high coefficient of soil texture is observed after the clover of meadow, and the smallest – after the white clover. According to the four-year-old growing of perennial grasses, the coefficient of soil structure increases three-fold compared to two-year growing and is the highest after the sainfoin sand and hare of horned. Thus, all the legumes perennial grasses significantly increase the physical properties of the soil, which improves its resistance to destruction by anthropogenic and natural factors.
Key words soil, structure, dynamics, legumes perennial grasses, cultivation.
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