Uman NUH | today: 09/05/2019

The content of soil structural aggregates for the period of flowering peas, winter wheat and sugar beet for various basic treatment activities

Author(s) Kyzhanjvskiy V.G., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Pinchkovskiy G.L., , ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2018 issue Випуск №92. Частина 1
pages 141-149 index UDK 631.49.041:625.131.3
DOI
Abstract The materials are presented on average for three years on the influence of various activities of the main processing of podzolic chernozem in the five-year crop rotation for the maintenance of structural aggregates of the soil for the period of flowering peas, winter wheat and sugar beet. It has been established that the replacement of plowing variants with cultivation and without basic processing does not worsen the structure of the arable layer on the middle of vegetation of peas, winter wheat and sugar beet. In the arable layer of soils, even an increase in the content of agronomically valuable structural aggregates is observed on 1,0–1,2 and 1,7 % in peas, on 0,7–0,8 and 1,7 % in winter wheat and at 0,9–1.4 % – under beet sugar. This is due to a decrease in the fraction (> 10 mm) and dusty (<0.25 mm) aggregates of brylastoids. In the system of agrotechnical measures aimed at increasing the fertility of the soil and the productivity of crops, the rational mechanical treatment of the soil, which regulates the agrophysical, biological and agrochemical processes occurring in the soil, the intensity of decomposition and accumulation of organic matter, the maintenance of soil moisture in the root- layer and effective use of plants by fertilizers. Currently, there is a tendency to minimize soil cultivation, the essence of which is the reduction of efforts for deep soil loosening. But with these technologies, productivity of crops should not decrease, soil degradation should occur, and their fertility should be degraded. The state of the structure of the soil in our experiments was closely linked to the weather conditions that developed during this period in the corresponding years. For example, in 2007, after a dry period in April-June, soil moisture quickly evaporated due to the high air temperature, which caused so-called "sintering" of the soil, which led to the formation of more lumps among the total number of soil aggregates. Today, the transition to the minimization of soil cultivation is due, in addition to environmental, and also economic problems, first of all, the annual rise in price of fuel and lubricants and equipment. On the other hand, field-free cultivation of the soil, which is the basis of these technologies, leads to a decrease in the yield of some crops, not only because of the increase of the crop condition, but also the deterioration of the physical properties of the soil, the temporary weakening of its biological activity and nutritional status.
Key words peas, winter wheat, sugar beets, plоuging, cultivation, without basiс tillage.
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