Uman NUH | today: 09/05/2019

Chemical composition of apples cv. Reinette Simirenko, treated with ethylene inhibitor depending on the orchard design and harvest date

Author(s) Drozd O.O., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, ,
Melnyk O.V., , , Uman National University of Horticulture
Melnyk I.O., Researcher, ,
Category The Agronomy
year 2018 issue Випуск №92. Частина 1
pages 46-55 index UDK 54:664.85:634.11:631.811.98
DOI
Abstract The date of harvesting has a significant impact on the results of the storage of apples, because the quality of the product depends on the stage of fruit maturity. Prematurely picked apples are usually small, not sufficiently colored, do not form the aroma typical for the pomological variety, they lose moisture faster and are susceptible to superficial scald. Lately harvested fruits are less affected by superficial scald, but are susceptible to mechanical damage and flesh browning, they tend to lose firmness, organic acids and dry soluble matter. The onset of apple harvest maturity, the color and flesh firmness of fruits, the accumulation of dry soluble solids, the content of organic acids and the susceptibility of the fruits to physiological disorders during storage significantly depend on the orchard design (rootstock). Preserving the contents of the components of the chemical composition and increasing the length of storage of apples without loss of marketable product quality effectively ensures the post-harvest treatment with ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropen (1-MCP). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of orchard design, harvesting time and post-harvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP) on the change of the content of soluble solids and titrated acids during storage of apples cv. Reinette Simirenko of mass and delayed harvest dates from intensive orchard on dwarf (M.9) and traditional orchard on middle-vigorous (MM.106) rootstocks. The fruits were cooled to 5 °C and then treated with 1-MCP and stored for up to seven months at the temperature of 2 ± 1 °С and relative humidity of 85–90 % (without treatment – control). The content of dry soluble solids was periodically measured with a refractometer and the content of acids (in terms of malic acid) was determined by titration. It was established that somewhat lower content of dry soluble solids during picking was observed in the fruit of the mass harvest period from the traditional orchard on the rootstock MM.106 and by 0.5 % higher content in the late-harvested apples. The index of apples from intensive orchard on the M.9 rootstock is 1.1 times higher than that of the traditional one. Postharvest treatment of apples from intensive orchard with 1-methylcyclopropane support the maintenance of dry soluble substances in fruits of both harvesting terms within six months of storage, and after seven months of storage their level are 0.4 % higher only in the apples of mass collection (at 1,3 % in late-harvested fruits from the traditional orchard). A slightly higher content of organic acids – 0.98–1.02 % – was found in the fruits of both harvesting terms from the intensive orchard. Compared with the fruit from trees on M.9 rootstock, the content of organic acids in apples of mass gathering from trees on the rootstock MM.106 was lower by 0.16 % (from a late collection by 0.18 %). At the end of a seven-month storage a post-harvest treatment with 1-MCP provides 2.1–2.2 higher level of organic acids in the fruits of mass harvesting from orchards of both types, 1.2 higher level in the fruits of late harvesting from intensive orchard and 2.6 higher level from a traditional one.
Key words Reinette Simirenko, SmartFresh, 1-Methylcyclopropene, rootstock, harvest date, storage, soluble solids, titrable acidity.
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