Uman NUH | today: 05/18/2019

Effectiveness of application of buckwheat crop desiccation under the conditions of the western Forest-Steppe

Author(s) Rarok A. V. , Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Podilsky State Agrarian Technical University
Poltoretska N.M., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, ,
Poltoretskiy S.P., Candidate of Agricultural Science, professor, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Yatsenko A.A., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Category The Agronomy
year 2018 issue Випуск №92. Частина 1
pages 55-64 index UDK 633.12: 631.82
DOI
Abstract The harvest of buckwheat crops in postcut and stubble way is in the middle of October when under the temperature regime this crop is not able to dry up sufficiently in the rolls, delaying the harvest period and increasing its loss. However, in references under the excellent soil-climatic conditions, existing recommendations sometimes contain controversial data or are schematic in nature. Therefore, the purpose of our research was to study the effectiveness of desiccation use in the technology of buckwheat cultivation under the regional conditions of the Western Forest-Steppe. Research methods. The research was conducted in 2013–2016 under the conditions of the experimental field of Podillia State Agrarian Technical University located in the southern part of Khmelnitsky region. It belongs to the southern thermal agro-climatic region by heat supply and degree of humidity during the growing season. The schematic course of the experiment includes: A – a buckwheat variety (Victoria, Antaria, Malynka and Krupnozelena); B – dose of Hurricane Forte desiccant (2.5; 3.0; 3.5; 4.0 and 4.5 l/ha, without desiccants (check variant) – plants are collected by separate method after air-thermal drying in field conditions); С – harvesting periods (75, 80, 85 and 90 (check variant) days of vegetation). The registration plot is 50 m2, a number of repetitions are 4 and the predecessor is winter wheat. The method of sowing is wide-ranging with a width of rows of 45 cm and a seeding rate of 1.8 million seeds/ha. Records, analyzes and observations are conducted according to generally accepted methods. According to the results of many research years, in variants using the dose of 3.5 l/ha of the preparation, plants of all studied buckwheat varieties were the most losing moisture, best suited for single-phase harvesting and had the smallest losses. Thus, the grain yield within the studied variants of vegetation duration was at the level of 1.17–1.35 t/ha in Victoria variety, 1.33–1.54 t/ha in Antaria variety, 1.41–1.62 t/ha in Malynka variety and 1.39–1.60 t/ha in Krupnozelena variety. Depending on the duration of the growing season, it was found that for Victoria, Antaria and Malynka varieties the most optimal is single-phase harvesting for 85 days from the beginning of sprouts after the previous desiccation of crops. The productivity was the highest and on average, over the years of research, respectively, amounted to 1.39, 1.65 and 1.62 t/ha. For the late-maturing Krupnozelena variety, the last of studied harvesting periods was also optimal (90 days). Thus, for the use of these harvesting periods in combination with desiccation, the highest yield was obtained at the level of 1.58–1.60 t/ha. According to the results of the laboratory analysis of buckwheat grain harvested after processing with desiccants, residues of desiccants in each of the studied varieties were not detected. Conclusions. The most effective dose of Hurricane Forte desiccant is application of 3.5 l/ha of the preparation for a single-phase 85–day harvesting after sprouts which provides the highest yield in Victoria variety(1.41 t/ha), Antaria variety (1.67 t/ha), Malynka variety (1.62 t/ha) and in Krupnozelena variety on the 90th day (1.58 t/ha).
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