Formation of ecologically safe land use in agricultural production
Shchetyna M. A., Candidate of Economics Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Випуск №89. Частина 2
Land resources are an important part of the resource potential of agriculture of all Ukraine and are the main, irreplaceable and unique means of agricultural production. Their main feature is rent capacity, so use of land resources must be ecologically safe because they are a strategic resource.
Today, in Ukraine a complicated ecological and economic situation is evident. It is associated with the deterioration of the environment. The current use of land resources is not ecologically safe because the level of ploughness of agricultural lands is on average 78.2% during the studied years.
Land users in their business activities always grow only those crops (wheat, sunflower, corn and barley) prices for which provide the highest level of income in the production, at the same time violating recommended rates of crop rotations and reducing areas of fodder crops, in particular perennial grasses which are the basis of soil conservation crop rotations. As a result, the ecological condition of soils is deteriorating. Unreasonable expansion of areas of intensive crops leads to strengthening of degradation processes, dehumidification and soil depletion in nutrients and in future could lead to disruption of the ecological balance, economic loss and social issues related to the environment.
The lack of the state control over the production activities on arable lands has led to the fact that land users do not have the rational use of land resources focusing only on their own interests.
Economic incentives for the ecologically safe use of land resources can be the stimulation for land owners and land users. They should be based on a system of economic stimulation methods with the use of measures to increase the level of reclamation and fertility of agricultural lands. Funding these activities is possible due to funds of environmental protection in budgets of all levels and grants from international environmental organizations.
We suggest that funds of the main sources of revenues of state and local budgets will be used to make incentive on conducting land conservation measures were:
- Fines issued by the State Inspection of Agriculture which inspections revealed non-compliance of requirements of the land legislation in using land resources (loss of soil fertility, land pollution, non-purpose use of lands and so on);
- Tax that land users must pay for the implementation of land conservation measures. It is called “Land tax for the implementation of land conservation measures”.
Consequently, having effective state regulation of matters relating to land resources it is possible to achieve stability and well-functioning system of land use which will focus on the provision of welfare of citizens and ecologically safe land use. With the present land management it is necessary to pay attention to environmental requirements focusing on the environmentally sustainable approach to the usage of land resources that will ensure restoring of soil fertility and increasing of productivity of farmlands.
land resources, ecologically safe land use, agricultural production, sustainable use, agricultural producers.