Basic tendencies in the global market of fruit production are to increase the volume of its production, post harvest completion and implementation, availability throughout the year and development of logistics. The purpose of this paper is to analyze modern state and basic tendencies in growing pome crop fruits in Ukraine and the world, substantiation of directions of developing domestic commercial horticulture. The dialectical method of cognition and systematic approach to the study of scientific papers on the problems of branch development, legislative acts, data of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have become the theoretical and methodological basis of our studies.
In Ukraine almost all fruit and berry crops of temperate climate are grown but in the structure of gardens and berry plantations the largest share is occupied by pome fruit – 130.7 thousand hectares or 58% of which apple – 88.1, pear – 10.9, quince – 0.5 %. The analysis of success in developing cultivation of these plants in different countries shows that the general trend is transition to new production technologies which are based on high-intensive types of gardens with a high planting density on low or medium rootstocks. For many years a constant leader in the cultivation of apples and pears remains China which share increased in 2005-2013, respectively, from 38.5% to 49.1 and from 59.0 to 69.2% in the world production. In Ukraine in 2014 the total area of apple and pear plantations at farms of all categories amounted to 115.2 and 14.3 thousand ha, gross yield – 1085.4 and 157.7 thousand tons and yield – 10.8 and 12 4 t/ha. In 2010-2014 the export of fresh pome fruits including apples was 97.5% decreased by 4.9 times (from 99.0 to 20.2 thousand tons). The same tendency was also observed with the import of these fruits (including apples – 90.9, pears and quinces – 9.1%) which fell from 207.1 to 51.8 thousand tons or 4 times.
In recent years in Ukraine, as in other countries, there is a tendency to increase production of pome fruits through the use of modern technological advances. However, the most important problems of functioning national gardening are deterioration of material and technical base and lack of investment resources. Taking this into account the main ways of increasing efficiency of cultivating fruits of these crops are the most full use of scientific and technological capabilities, facilitating access to credit resources, state stimulation of innovative activity of economic entities, etc.
pome fruit, global production, exports, imports, industrial horticulture.